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This example project demonstrates a clean way to architect an Android application.Kotlin
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Apache License 2.0

Android app architecture in a clean way

This example project demonstrates a clean way to architect an Android application. Further details will be explained in a Medium Post.

This app consists of three screens with a simple flow of UI:

  • A filterable list of world cities
  • Viewing a city on map
  • Exploring github users of the city

⚠️ DISCLAIMER

In case of large-scale projects, containing dozens of features, the exact architecture of this project might not be effective. It would be better to apply Clean Architecture to each feature independently, which leads to higher levels of cohesion and shorter compile-time.


Table of Contents


Main Characteristics

What With
Layered architecture Clean Architecture
Separation of concerns (SoC) Gradle modularization
Lifecycle-aware presentation architecture MVVM pattern
Navigation Jetpack Navigation Component
Feature independence Dynamic Feature Module
Inversion on control (IoC) Dagger2
Concurrent programming Coroutines
Reactive programming Flow and LiveData
Indexing a large amount of records (~210k) + retrieval time < 10ms RadixTree
Pagination Paging3

Architecture Overview

The architecture of the app follows the well-known Clean Architecture guidelines to make the business rules as separated as possible. It consists of 3 main layers: Data, Domain, and Presentation that will be explained in the following.


Gradle Modules

The overall structure of the codebase is organized into 3 categories of gradle modules.

  • architecture: modules that establish the Clean Architecture layers.
  • common: modules that provide common components and foundations for architecture modules.
  • features: modules that implement separate features of the application.

Regardless of two test-related modules (i.e. sharedTest and sharedAndroidTest), there are 11 gradle modules. (4 pure Kotlin and 7 Android module)

Each module follows single responsibility principle, results in higher cohesion. In addition, modules are decoupled, so they know only each other's interface, which increases their maintainability and testability.



Architecture Layers

The overall architecture is organized into 3 main layers:



1. Presentation

The presentation layer contains the app and features, which are all Android application modules. It presents user interface by navigating between different features provided by feature modules. Features are implemented in Dynamic Feature Modules and they will be delivered at install time. It allows us to separate their code and resources from the base app module. In fact, the app module aggregates architectural modules for the features, in addition holds base and navigation-related classes.

2. Domain

The domain layer contains business rules and entities, which are pure Kotlin modules. The domain module provides the business logic via use-case classes and defines abstraction of repositories to be implemented by the data module. In addition, each use-case object can act as a bridge between app and data modules. So, this is the only possible way for the app and it descendant features to collaborate with the data module.

3. Data

As the aim of the data layer is to deal with local or remote sources of data, it needs to interact with the framework. Therefor, it is an Android library module. The concrete objects are created and delivered to the domain by the dagger. It is worth noting that all of the concrete classes in this module are internal, so they cannot be exposed to dependant modules, like the app.

  • The only reason for having a dependency between app and data is accessing to dagger modules and components located in the data, which is required for building the dependency graph by the dagger.

Module Dependencies

The diagram below shows the dependency graph of gradle modules.



Dependency Injection

dagger2 is a powerful tool to establish Inversion of control (IoC) in the architecture design. Using scopes, we can manage the lifetime of objects provided by dagger components. In this project, scopes are categorized into 3 levels:

  • App-level scope (i.e. AppScope) is used for the objects whose lifetime is equal to the app. So, they are instantiated once and used through whole app, like the applicationContext.

  • Foundation-level scopes define the lifetime of the foundational objects, like the Retrofit object. They can live as long as the app lives or shorter than that.

  • Feature-level scope (i.e. FeatureScope) is used for specifying the lifetime of object that should live as long as a feature lives.



Third-Party Libraries


License

Copyright 2021 Amin Hassani.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.